Module: 4- A: Chapter Questions:
Read the chapter and answer these questions on your own
Chapter – 11. Atomic Nature of Matter:
1) Define atomic structure including the electrons, protons and neutrons.
2) What is a Periodic Table?
3) Define these terms: Atomic number, Atomic Mass Unit (AMU), Isotopes and Isotones.
4) What are the differences among the following: Compounds, Mixtures and Molecules.
5) Define the following: Antimatter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy.
Chapter – 12. Solids:
1) How can you determine the crystal structure of a Solid?
2) How is amorphous structure different from the crystalline structure?
3) What is the difference between the Mass density and Weight density?
4) What is Elasticity? Define elastic and inelastic properties of a substance with examples.
5) What is elastic limit?
6) Define Hooke’s law
Hooke’s law can be stated that, the stress on a solid substance is subjected to, is directly proportional to the strain produced by it, provided the stress is less than the elastic limit of the substance.
7) What is Stress? What is the difference between Tension and Compression?
Chapter – 13. Liquids:
1) Define Pressure in a Liquid
2) What is Buoyancy of a liquid?
3) Describe Archimedes’s Principle. Give two examples.
4) What makes an object sink or float?
5) What is Pascal’s principle? Give two examples.
6) Define Surface Tension and Capillarity of liquids.
7) What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?
Chapter – 14 Gases:
1) What do you mean by Atmospheric pressure?
2) What do you understand by the statement that the atmospheric pressure at sea level is 105 N/m2 ?
3) What is a Barometer? What is so special about 76 cm in a barometer?
4) What is Boyle’s Law?
5) What is Buoyancy of air?
6) Define Bernoulli’s Principle, and give three examples of it.
7) What do you understand by Plasma?
Module: 4- B: Chapter Exercises:
Exercise questions are at the end of each chapter. Answer these in details
11. Atomic Nature of Matter 1, 16, 26, 35
1. How many types of atoms can you expect to find in a pure sample of any element?
16. The atomic masses of two isotopes of cobalt are 59 and 60. ( a) What is the number of protons and neutrons in each? ( b) What is the number of orbiting electrons in each when the isotopes are electrically neutral?
26. A carbon atom, with a half- full outer shell of electrons— four in a shell that can hold eight— readily shares its electrons with other atoms and forms a vast number of molecules, many of which are the organic molecules that form the bulk of living matter. Looking at the periodic table, what other element do you think might play a role like carbon in life forms on some other planet?
35. Make up a multiple- choice question that will test your classmates on the distinction between any two terms in the Summary of Terms list.
12. Solids 9, 12, 21, 35, 42
9. What happens to the density of water when it freezes to become ice?
12. Which has more volume, a kilogram of gold or a kilogram of aluminum?
21. Can a horizontal I- beam support a greater load when the web is horizontal or when the web is vertical? Explain.
35. Why does crushed ice melt faster than the same mass of ice cubes?
42. What is the advantage to a gymnast of being short in stature?
13. Liquids 4, 21, 32, 43, 52
4. Which do you suppose exerts more pressure on the ground— a 5000- kg elephant or a 50- kg lady standing on spike heels? ( Which will be more likely to make dents in a linoleum floor?) Approximate a rough calculation for each.
21. Why does water “ seek its own level”?
32. Why is it inaccurate to say that heavy objects sink and that light objects float? Give exaggerated examples to support your answer.
43. In answering the question of why bodies float higher in saltwater than in freshwater, your friend replies that the reason is that saltwater is denser than freshwater. ( Does your friend often answer questions by reciting only factual statements that relate to the answers but don’t pro-vide any concrete reasons?) How would you answer the same question?
52. What would you experience when swimming in water in an orbiting space habitat where simulated gravity is g ? Would you float in the water as you do on Earth?
14 Gases 9, 11, 18, 45, 51
9. When an air bubble rises in water, what happens to its mass, volume, and density?
11. When boarding an airplane, you bring a bag of chips ( or any other item packaged in an airtight foil package) and, while you are in flight, you notice that the bag puffs up. Explain why this happens.
18. From how deep a container could mercury be drawn with a siphon?
45. Imagine a huge space colony that consists of a rotating air- filled cylinder. How would the density of air at “ ground level” compare to the air densities “ above”?
51. How is an airplane able to fly upside down?