Chapter 3 anatomy and research methods-psychology 3322

     

True / False

  

1. Neurons that directly convey messages to muscles and   glands are part of the central nervous system.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Terminology to     Describe the Nervous System

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.03.02 –     Describe the principal functions of certain brain areas.

 

TOPICS:  

3.1 Structure of the     Vertebrate Nervous System

  

2. The elbow is more distal to the shoulder than the hand.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

  

3. Cell bodies of motor neurons are located outside of the   spinal cord.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

  

4. ​The parasympathetic nervous system activates the   “fight or flight” response.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

 

 

 

 

  

5. Parasympathetic neurons use acetylcholine as their   neurotransmitter.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

 

 

 

 

TOPICS:  

3.1 Structure of the     Vertebrate Nervous System

  

6. The hindbrain consists of the medulla, the pons, and the   cerebellum.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

 

 

 

  

7. ​Some cranial nerves include both sensory and motor   components.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

 

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8. Substantia nigra gives rise to the dopamine-containing   pathway that facilitates readiness for movement.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

 

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9. The limbic system is important for motivation and   emotional behaviors.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

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10. Although relatively small, the hypothalamus is very   important for a large range of motivated behaviors.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.03.02 –     Describe the principal functions of certain brain areas.

 

TOPICS:  

3.1 Structure of the     Vertebrate Nervous System

  

11. The choroid plexus reabsorbs the cerebrospinal fluid.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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12. Damage to the right hemisphere of the cortex will most   likely cause loss of sensory or motor control on the left side of the body.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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13. ​Damage to the striate cortex of the right hemisphere   causes blindness in the left visual field.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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14. The prefrontal cortex is important for working memory.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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15. ​Many cells in association areas of the brain respond   to more than one sensory modality.

  

a. 

True

 

b. 

False

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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Multiple Choice

  

16. ​The central nervous system is composed of the ____.

  

a. 

​brain and spinal     cord

 

b. 

​nerves outside the     brain and spinal cord exclusively 

 

c. 

​sympathetic and     parasympathetic nervous systems

 

d. 

​somatic and     autonomic nervous systems

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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17. ​Together, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic   nervous system make up the ____ nervous system.

  

a. 

​peripheral

 

b. 

​central

 

c. 

​sympathetic

 

d. 

​dorsal

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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18. ​Which division of the nervous system consists of   neurons that deliver messages from the sensory organs to the central nervous   system?

  

a. 

​autonomic

 

b. 

​sympathetic

 

c. 

​somatic

 

d. 

​parasympathetic

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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19. The somatic nervous system carries signals from the   ____ and is part of the ____.​

  

a. 

​senses; central     nervous system

 

b. 

​organs; autonomic     nervous system

 

c. 

​organs; sympathetic     nervous system

 

d. 

​senses; peripheral     nervous system

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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20. ​Which division of the nervous system consists of   neurons that control the heart, intestines, and other organs?

  

a. 

​internal

 

b. 

​afferent

 

c. 

​somatic

 

d. 

​autonomic

  

 

 

 

 

  

21. ​Which plane shows brain structures as they would be   seen from the front?

  

a. 

​coronal

 

b. 

​sagittal

 

c. 

​horizontal

 

d. 

​transverse

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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22. ​Which plane shows brain structures as they would be   seen from above?

  

a. 

​coronal

 

b. 

​sagittal

 

c. 

​horizontal

 

d. 

​commuter

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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23. ​If one structure is on the left side of the body and   another is on the right, they are said to be ____ to each other.

  

a. 

​medial

 

b. 

​lateral

 

c. 

​ipsilateral

 

d. 

​contralateral

  

ANSWER:  

 

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24. ​The basal ganglia are a related cluster of cell bodies   that are lateral to the.

  

a. 

​meninges

 

b. 

​hippocampus

 

c. 

​hypothalamus

 

d. 

​thalamus

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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25. ​The spinal cord communicates with ____.

  

a. 

​sense organs and     muscles below the level of the head

 

b. 

​all sense organs     and muscles in the human body

 

c. 

​the dorsal root     ganglia only

 

d. 

​the ventral root     ganglia only

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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26. ​The cell bodies of sensory neurons that are in   clusters of neurons outside the spinal cord are called ____.

  

a. 

​sensory nuclei

 

b. 

​sensory clusters

 

c. 

​ventral root ganglia

 

d. 

​dorsal root ganglia

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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27. ​After damage to the dorsal roots of the spinal cord,   an individual will suffer what kind of loss?

  

a. 

​sensation from the     affected body area

 

b. 

​control of the     peripheral muscles in the affected body area

 

c. 

​control of organs     in the affected body area

 

d. 

​sensation of the     muscles on the opposite side of the body

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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28. ​After damage to the ventral roots of the spinal cord,   an individual will suffer what kind of loss?

  

a. 

​sensation from the     affected body area

 

b. 

​control of the     peripheral muscles in the affected body area

 

c. 

​control of organs     in the affected body area

 

d. 

​sensation of the     muscles on the opposite side of the body

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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29. ​Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in the   ____.

  

a. 

​spinal cord

 

b. 

​dorsal root ganglia

 

c. 

​white matter

 

d. 

​ventral roots

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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30. ​Cell bodies of motor neurons would most likely be   found in ____.

  

a. 

​gray matter

 

b. 

​white matter

 

c. 

​the dorsal roots

 

d. 

​the tracts

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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31. ​Where would you find the dorsal root ganglia?

  

a. 

​at the base of the     brain

 

b. 

​in the gray matter     of the spinal cord

 

c. 

​in the white matter     of the spinal cord

 

d. 

​outside, but near,     the spinal cord

  

ANSWER:  

 

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32. ​A cross section of the spinal cord indicates that gray   matter is ____.

  

a. 

​densely packed with     myelinated axons

 

b. 

​composed mostly of     unmyelinated axons

 

c. 

​densely packed with     cell bodies and dendrites

 

d. 

​composed only of     dendrites

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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33. ​Which part of the nervous system prepares the body for   “fight or flight” activities?

  

a. 

​sympathetic

 

b. 

​somatic

 

c. 

​parasympathetic

 

d. 

​peripheral

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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34. ​The sweat glands, adrenal glands, and muscles that   constrict blood vessels have input from only the ____ nervous system.

  

a. 

​sympathetic

 

b. 

​parasympathetic

 

c. 

​central

 

d. 

​dorsal root

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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35. ​You are walking after dark. A sudden noise frightens   you. Your heart pounds, your pulse races, and your breathing rate increases.   These responses are due to your ____.

  

a. 

​parasympathetic     nervous system

 

b. 

​sympathetic nervous     system

 

c. 

​somatic nervous     system

 

d. 

​immune system

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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36. ​Sympathetic ganglia ____.

  

a. 

​are located inside     the spinal cord

 

b. 

​act more     independently than do parasympathetic ganglia

 

c. 

​are closely linked     and often act as a single system

 

d. 

​have short     postganglionic fibers extending to internal organs

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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37. ​Sympathetic is to ____ as parasympathetic is to ____.

  

a. 

​the central nervous     system; the peripheral nervous system

 

b. 

​voluntary behavior;     involuntary behavior

 

c. 

​arousal; relaxation

 

d. 

​neurotransmitters;     hormones

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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38. ​The parasympathetic nervous system has ____.

  

a. 

​long preganglionic     and long postganglionic axons

 

b. 

​long preganglionic     and short postganglionic axons

 

c. 

​short preganglionic     and short postganglionic axons

 

d. 

​short preganglionic     and long postganglionic axons

  

 

 

 

 

  

39. ​Which neurotransmitter is primarily used by the   parasympathetic nervous system?

  

a. 

​dopamine

 

b. 

​serotonin

 

c. 

​acetylcholine

 

d. 

​norepinephrine

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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40. ​Acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter released by   ____.

  

a. 

​the sympathetic     nervous system’s postganglionic synapses

 

b. 

​the parasympathetic     nervous system’s postganglionic axons

 

c. 

​intrinsic neurons     in the spinal cord

 

d. 

​intrinsic neurons     of the hippocampus

  

ANSWER:  

 

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41. ​Sympathetic is to ____ as parasympathetic is to ____.

  

a. 

​serotonin; dopamine

 

b. 

​dopamine; serotonin

 

c. 

​acetylcholine;     norepinephrine

 

d. 

​norepinephrine;     acetylcholine

  

ANSWER:  

 

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42. ​Which structure consists of the medulla, the pons, and   the cerebellum?

  

a. 

​hindbrain

 

b. 

​reticular formation

 

c. 

​midbrain

 

d. 

​forebrain

  

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43. ​The term rhombencephalon refers to the ____.

  

a. 

​brainstem

 

b. 

​hindbrain

 

c. 

​midbrain

 

d. 

​forebrain

  

ANSWER:  

 

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44. ​What structure is composed of the medulla, pons, the   midbrain, and certain central structures of the forebrain?

  

a. 

​limbic system

 

b. 

​thalamus

 

c. 

​brain stem

 

d. 

​cerebellum

  

ANSWER:  

 

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45. ​The medulla is considered part of the brain rather   than the spinal cord because it ____.

  

a. 

​developed later in     evolution

 

b. 

​is contained in the     skull

 

c. 

​develops from a     separate group of neurons

 

d. 

​is composed only of     interneurons

  

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46. ​Breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing,   and sneezing are all controlled by which structure?

  

a. 

​medulla

 

b. 

​thalamus

 

c. 

​cerebellum

 

d. 

​pons

  

ANSWER:  

 

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47. ​As axons from the spinal cord enter the skull, which   structure do they enter?

  

a. 

​midbrain

 

b. 

​forebrain

 

c. 

​medulla

 

d. 

​cerebellum

  

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48. ​The medulla controls a number of reflexes through   ____.

  

a. 

​the midbrain

 

b. 

​the forebrain

 

c. 

​cranial nerves

 

d. 

​skeletal nerves

  

ANSWER:  

 

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49. ​How many pairs of cranial nerves do humans have?

  

a. 

​8

 

b. 

​10

 

c. 

​12

 

d. 

​16

  

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50. ​The nuclei for most of the cranial nerves are located   in the ____.

  

a. 

​cerebral cortex

 

b. 

​hypothalamus

 

c. 

​midbrain

 

d. 

​pons and medulla

  

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51. ​The nuclei for cranial nerves I through IV are located   in the ____.

  

a. 

​midbrain and     forebrain

 

b. 

​hindbrain

 

c. 

​pons and medulla

 

d. 

​spinal cord

  

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52. Vision is to ____ as hearing is to ____.

  

a. 

​cranial nerve I;     cranial nerve X

 

b. 

​cranial nerve II;     cranial nerve VIII

 

c. 

​cranial nerve II;     cranial nerve V

 

d. 

​cranial nerve IV;     cranial nerve VIII

  

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53. ​The reticular formation is contained within the ____.

  

a. 

​brain stem

 

b. 

​spinal cord

 

c. 

​raphe system

 

d. 

​cerebellum

  

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54. ​The ascending portion of the reticular formation ____.

  

a. 

​controls the motor     areas of the spinal cord

 

b. 

​is responsible for     the eye muscles

 

c. 

​controls the motor     areas of the brain

 

d. 

​increases arousal     and attention

  

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55. ​Which structure receives input from the   hypothalamus and basal ganglia and sends axons that release acetylcholine to   widespread areas in the cerebral cortex?

  

a. 

​nucleus basilis

 

b. 

​reticular formation

 

c. 

​spinal cord

 

d. 

​amygdala

  

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56. ​The cerebellum contributes to the control of what   function?

  

a. 

​hunger

 

b. 

​temperature

 

c. 

​olfaction

 

d. 

​movement

  

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57. ​Research indicates that the behavioral effects of the   cerebellum may be due to its role in ____.

  

a. 

​coordinating     information from left and right hemispheres

 

b. 

​focusing attention     and organizing sensory inputs

 

c. 

​interpreting visual     stimuli

 

d. 

​coordinating the     release of hormones

  

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58. ​In addition to problems with balance and coordination,   a person with damage to the cerebellum will likely have problems with ____.

  

a. 

​reflexive changes     in heart rate

 

b. 

​shifting attention     between auditory and visual stimuli

 

c. 

​amnesia

 

d. 

​rational     decision-making

  

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59. ​In which area of the brain would one find the tectum,   tegmentum, superior and inferior colliculi, and substantia nigra?

  

a. 

​midbrain

 

b. 

​hindbrain

 

c. 

​reticular formation

 

d. 

​forebrain

  

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60. Superior colliculus is to ____ as inferior colliculus   is to ____.

  

a. 

​vision; hearing

 

b. 

​taste; smell

 

c. 

​vision; touch

 

d. 

​touch; hearing

  

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61. What type of pathway in the substantia nigra   deteriorates in Parkinson’s disease?​

  

a. 

​dopamine

 

b. 

​serotonin

 

c. 

​norepinephrine

 

d. 

​acetylcholine

  

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62. ​A group of forebrain structures is important for   motivated and emotional behavior. What term refers to this group of   structures?

  

a. 

​limbic system

 

b. 

​reticular formation

 

c. 

​tegmentum

 

d. 

​basal ganglia

  

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63. ​The limbic system is most related to ____.

  

a. 

​emotional behaviors

 

b. 

​motor coordination

 

c. 

​coordination     between the eyes and ears

 

d. 

​perception of     three-dimensional objects

  

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64. ​One function of the thalamus is to ____.

  

a. 

​relay sensory     information to the cerebral cortex

 

b. 

​regulate sleep     cycles

 

c. 

​direct the     secretions of the hypothalamus

 

d. 

​moderate emotional     outbursts

  

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65. ​Which structure provides the main source of input to   the cerebral cortex?

  

a. 

​limbic system

 

b. 

​medulla

 

c. 

​thalamus

 

d. 

​hypothalamus

  

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66. ​Olfactory information is processed by the ____.

  

a. 

​thalamus via the     olfactory bulbs

 

b. 

​cortex via the     olfactory bulbs

 

c. 

​spinal cord

 

d. 

​medulla

  

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67. ​An impairment of eating, drinking, temperature regulation,   or sexual behavior suggests possible damage to which brain structure?

  

a. 

​midbrain

 

b. 

​hippocampus

 

c. 

​hypothalamus

 

d. 

​cerebellum

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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68. ​The hindbrain consists of the ____.

  

a. 

​tectum, tegmentum,     and reticular formation

 

b. 

​thalamus and     hypothalamus

 

c. 

​spinal cord and     cranial nerves

 

d. 

​medulla, pons, and     cerebellum

  

ANSWER:  

 

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69. ​By both neural and hormonal pathways, the hypothalamus   regulates activity of the ____.

  

a. 

​pituitary gland

 

b. 

​thalamus

 

c. 

​retina

 

d. 

​ventricles

  

ANSWER:  

 

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70. ​Secretions from which gland will also affect the   secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and ovaries or   testes?

  

a. 

​thymus gland

 

b. 

​pineal gland

 

c. 

​pineal gland

 

d. 

​pituitary gland

  

ANSWER:  

 

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71. ​The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases hormones   ____.

  

a. 

​to the outside of     the body

 

b. 

​to the thalamus

 

c. 

​into the     bloodstream

 

d. 

​to the hypothalamus

  

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72. ​Which structure is likely to be damaged in Parkinson’s   disease, Huntington’s disease, and other conditions that impair movement?

  

a. 

​thalamus

 

b. 

​basal ganglia

 

c. 

​limbic system

 

d. 

​reticular formation

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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73. ​Damage to the basal ganglia would most likely result   in ____.

  

a. 

​a movement disorder

 

b. 

​problems with     visual perception

 

c. 

​problems with     auditory perception

 

d. 

​a loss of pain     sensation

  

ANSWER:  

 

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74. ​The nucleus basalis is a key part of the brain’s   system for ____.

  

a. 

​emotional response

 

b. 

​attention

 

c. 

​visual perception

 

d. 

​auditory perception

  

ANSWER:  

 

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75. ​The hippocampus plays a major role in ____.

  

a. 

​innate sexual     behavior

 

b. 

​temperature     regulation

 

c. 

​memory

 

d. 

​secretion of     hormones

  

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76. ​An individual has difficulty remembering certain   things after brain damage, but all memories stored before the damage are   intact. The brain area most likely damaged is the ____.

  

a. 

​fornix

 

b. 

​hypothalamus

 

c. 

​hippocampus

 

d. 

​nucleus basalis

  

ANSWER:  

 

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77. ​The ventricles, central canal, and subarachnoid space   are all ____.

  

a. 

​part of the     forebrain

 

b. 

​filled with     cerebrospinal fluid

 

c. 

​involved in     cognitive functioning

 

d. 

​filled with blood

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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78. ​The choroid plexus ____.

  

a. 

​cushions the brain

 

b. 

​protects the brain     from infection

 

c. 

​is another name for     the ventricles

 

d. 

​forms the     cerebrospinal fluid

  

ANSWER:  

 

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79. ​Meningitis is an inflammation of the ____.

  

a. 

​cerebrospinal fluid

 

b. 

​glia

 

c. 

​membranes     surrounding the brain

 

d. 

​medulla oblongata

  

ANSWER:  

 

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80. ​Membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord are   called ____.

  

a. 

​CSF

 

b. 

​ventricles

 

c. 

​meninges

 

d. 

​hydrocephali

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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81. ​A function of the cerebrospinal fluid is to ____.

  

a. 

​cushion the brain

 

b. 

​hold blood in     reserve for emergencies

 

c. 

​maintain the     blood-brain barrier

 

d. 

​synthesize     neurotransmitters

  

ANSWER:  

 

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82. ​What causes hydrocephalus?

  

a. 

​poorly developed     skull bones in an infant

 

b. 

​interruption of     blood flow to the brain around the time of birth

 

c. 

​obstruction in the     flow of cerebrospinal fluid

 

d. 

​damage to one of     the cranial nerves

  

ANSWER:  

 

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83. ​Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex receives most   of its input from the ____ side of the body and controls the muscles on the   ____ side.

  

a. 

​contralateral;     ipsilateral

 

b. 

​ipsilateral;     contralateral

 

c. 

​ipsilateral;     ipsilateral

 

d. 

​contralateral;     contralateral

  

ANSWER:  

 

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84. ​What do the corpus callosum and anterior commissure   have in common?

  

a. 

​They both produce     CSF.

 

b. 

​They both connect     the two hemispheres.

 

c. 

​They are made up of     gray matter.

 

d. 

​They each have six     laminae.

  

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85. ​Which statement is TRUE about laminae in the cerebral   cortex?

  

a. 

​All cortical areas     contain six layers.

 

b. 

​Odd numbered     laminae contain only neurons; even numbered laminae contain only glia.

 

c. 

​The laminae vary in     thickness in different areas.

 

d. 

​Each layer     corresponds to a different sensory modality.

  

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86. ​If you could selectively damage the individual laminae   of the cortex, damage to which layer would most likely affect visual   sensation?

  

a. 

​Layer IV of the     temporal cortex

 

b. 

​Layer V of the     occipital cortex

  

87. ​Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most important   for visual information?

  

a. 

​occipital

 

b. 

​parietal

 

c. 

​temporal

 

d. 

​frontal

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

 

TOPICS:  

3.2 The Cerebral     Cortex

  

88. ​Cortical blindness may result from the destruction of   ____.

  

a. 

​any part of the     cortex

 

b. 

​the occipital     cortex

 

c. 

​the parietal cortex

 

d. 

​the central sulcus

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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89. ​Which part of the cerebral cortex is most important   for the sense of touch?

  

a. 

​occipital lobe

 

b. 

​parietal lobe

 

c. 

​temporal lobe

 

d. 

​frontal lobe

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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90. ​The ____ monitors all the information about eye, head,   and body positions and passes it on to brain areas that control movement.

  

a. 

​parietal lobe

 

b. 

​occipital lobe

 

c. 

​central sulcus

 

d. 

​precentral gyrus

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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91. ​What is the primary target area in the cortex for   information regarding muscle-stretch and joint receptors?

  

a. 

​primary     somatosensory cortex

 

b. 

​occipital lobe

 

c. 

​central sulcus

 

d. 

​precentral gyrus

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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TOPICS:  

3.2 The Cerebral     Cortex

  

92. ​Someone who suddenly loses the ability to identify   objects by feeling them has probably suffered damage to what area of the   cerebral cortex?

  

a. 

​parietal lobe

 

b. 

​temporal lobe

 

c. 

​frontal lobe

 

d. 

​corpus callosum

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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93. What is the primary area of the cerebral cortex for   auditory sensations?​

  

a. 

​occipital

 

b. 

​parietal

 

c. 

​temporal

 

d. 

​frontal

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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94. ​Which lobe seems to be especially involved in the   comprehension of spoken language in humans?

  

a. 

​occipital

 

b. 

​parietal

 

c. 

​frontal

 

d. 

​temporal

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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95. ​Which lobe contributes most to the perception of   movement and recognition of faces?

  

a. 

​occipital lobe

 

b. 

​parietal lobe

 

c. 

​temporal lobe

 

d. 

​frontal lobe

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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3.2 The Cerebral     Cortex

  

96. ​The precentral gyrus is essential for the ____.

  

a. 

​control of fine     movements

 

b. 

​coordination     between vision and hearing

 

c. 

​regulation of     emotions

 

d. 

​attention to hunger     and thirst

  

ANSWER:  

 

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97. ​The only area of the cerebral cortex known to receive   input from ALL sensory modalities is the ____.

  

a. 

​thalamus

 

b. 

​prefrontal cortex

 

c. 

​striate cortex

 

d. 

​parietal lobe

  

ANSWER:  

 

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98. ​Neurons in the prefrontal cortex ____ than neurons in   other cortical areas.

  

a. 

​are larger in size

 

b. 

​have more dendritic     spines

 

c. 

​have greater     velocities of action potentials

 

d. 

​are more sensitive     to light

  

ANSWER:  

 

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99. ​Prefrontal lobotomies were conducted in the United   States in an attempt to ____.

  

a. 

​restore memory

 

b. 

​restrain prisoners

 

c. 

​treat severe     obesity

 

d. 

​treat severe     psychiatric disorders

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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100. ​The prefrontal cortex is important for ____.

  

a. 

​the processing of     visual information

 

b. 

​working memory

 

c. 

​language     acquisition

 

d. 

​recognizing faces

  

ANSWER:  

 

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101. ​If the prefrontal cortex is damaged, an individual   may ____.

  

a. 

​have difficulty     remembering where s/he just placed the keys

 

b. 

​sleep 18-22 hours     per day 

 

c. 

​have impaired     vision

 

d. 

​lose all memory of     faces for at least six months

  

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102. ​The “binding problem” is the issue of how   we ____.

  

a. 

​convert sensory     information into a pattern that produces movement

 

b. 

​perceive visual,     auditory and other aspects of a stimulus as a single object

 

c. 

​transfer     information between the left and right hemispheres

 

d. 

​communicate between     word comprehension and word production areas of the brain

  

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103. ​The large-scale integration problem is the difficulty   of ____.

  

a. 

​getting the     different parts of the brain to physically connect during development

 

b. 

​understanding how     neurons work

 

c. 

​knowing how the     areas of your brain work together to create a combined perception

 

d. 

​how more than one     person can perceive the same object at the same time

  

ANSWER:  

 

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104. ​Which statement is TRUE of the cortical areas that   are sometimes known as “association areas”?

  

a. 

​They have primary     control over processes of thinking and reasoning.

 

b. 

​They are best     described as additional sensory areas.

 

c. 

​They form     associations between touch and hearing.

 

d. 

​They integrate     information from more than one sensory system.

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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105. ​People with damage of the parietal cortex tend to   have trouble ____

  

a. 

​hearing sounds

 

b. 

​locating objects in     space

 

c. 

​remembering past     events

 

d. 

​speaking

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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106. ​Computerized axial tomography creates an image from   ____.

  

a. 

​microwaves

 

b. 

​infrared rays

 

c. 

​x-rays

 

d. 

​gamma rays

  

ANSWER:  

 

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107. ​Suppose you are interested in determining if the   volume of the hippocampus is associated with the amount of stress a person   was experiencing. Which method would be the best choice?

  

a. 

​CAT

 

b. 

​fMRI

 

c. 

​PET

 

d. 

​rCBF

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

 

TOPICS:  

3.3 Research Methods

  

108. ​An electroencephalograph measures ____.

  

a. 

​action potentials     in an individual neuron

 

b. 

​the electrical     resistance of hair

 

c. 

​the rate of glucose     uptake in active regions of the brain

 

d. 

​the average     activity of the cells in a given region of the brain

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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109. ​Evoked potentials in the brain are most likely to be   detected by a(n) ____.

  

a. 

​CAT scan

 

b. 

​MRI

 

c. 

​EEG

 

d. 

​PET scan

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

 

TOPICS:  

3.3 Research Methods

  

110. ​Which method is dependent upon injecting a   radioactive chemical into the blood to measure blood flow?

  

a. 

​fMRI

 

b. 

​PET

 

c. 

​CAT

 

d. 

​magnetic     stimulation

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

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111. ​Which technique is dependent upon the release of   oxygen from hemoglobin molecules?

  

a. 

​PET

 

b. 

​rCBF

 

c. 

​MRI

 

d. 

​fMRI

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

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112. ​A stereotaxic instrument would most likely be used   for ____.

  

a. 

​placing an     electrode in the brain

 

b. 

​assessing regional     blood flow

 

c. 

​testing reflexes

 

d. 

​measuring blood     pressure

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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113. How does the method of transcranial magnetic   stimulation of brain areas differ from magnetic inactivation?​

  

a. 

​Brain activation     results from long, intense magnetic stimulation.

 

b. 

​Brain inactivation     results from mild, brief magnetic stimulation.

 

c. 

​Brain inactivation     results as the magnets are simply reversed.

 

d. 

​Brain activation     results from mild, brief magnetic stimulation.

  

ANSWER:  

 

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114. Thus far, it appears that the brain feature most   strongly correlated with IQ in humans is the ____.​

  

a. 

​volume of the     hippocampus

 

b. 

​brain-to-body ratio

 

c. 

​brain weight

 

d. 

​amount of gray     matter

  

ANSWER:  

 

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115. ​Women on the average have a greater density of   neurons in part of the ____. 

  

a. 

​hippocampus

 

b. 

​temporal lobe

 

c. 

​frontal lobe

 

d. 

​gray matter

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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Essay

  

116. ​Organize the following divisions of the nervous   system in a hierarchy to show the relationships between them: central,   peripheral, autonomic, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic.

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

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117. Name and describe two different methods for measuring   brain function (not anatomy).

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.03.0 5     – Cite examples of several methods for studying the relationship between     brain activity and behavior.

 

TOPICS:  

3.3 Research Methods

  

118. Describe the basic anatomy and function of the spinal   cord.​

  

ANSWER:  

​ segment, the brain     loses sensation from that segment and below. The brain also loses motor     control over all parts of the body served by that segment and the lower     ones.

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

The Spinal Cord

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.03.02 –     Describe the principal functions of certain brain areas.

 

TOPICS:  

3.1 Structure of the     Vertebrate Nervous System

  

119. ​Describe the basic functions and components of the   autonomic nervous system.

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.03.02 –     Describe the principal functions of certain brain areas.

 

TOPICS:  

3.1 Structure of the     Vertebrate Nervous System

  

120. ​Briefly describe the main categories of methods for   studying brain function.

  

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

 

REFERENCES:  

Recording Brain     Activity

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.03.0 5     – Cite examples of several methods for studying the relationship between     brain activity and behavior.

 

TOPICS:  

3.3 Research Methods

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